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Background information Land Cruiser 60-series

What are the differences between the models and years of the 60-series? And what are the advantages of each of those?

Years of production and looks

The 60 series has been produced from August 1980 untill January 1990. The HJ60 has been built from 1980 until 1987; the HJ61 from 1986 until 1990. The latter stayed identical in looks compered with the HJ60, but from halfway 1987 the HJ61 can be recognized by the double square headlights, higher bumpers and a rounder dashboard. The 62 has never entered the European market and apart from only having the petrol engine option it is not clear to us how this one distinguishes itself from the others. The 61 on the other hand has never entered the markets of North-America.

Furthermore there is a variety of tail doors, namely the horizontally and the vertically opening doors. The first are called 'barn doors'. Also, from 1982 onwards there is an edition with a high roof. This is combined with an extra row of back seats, with additional sliding rear windows, and either a sun roof or airconditioning.

Then there are the much more important differences, those of engine types, gearboxes and Volt systems.



Most of the diesel engines are built by Hino; this is a Japanese light weight truck manufacterer operating under the wings of Toyota. The 60-series can contain 3 kinds of diesel engines: the 3B, the 2H and the 12H-T (turbo). The latter 2 have 6 cylinders with a combined volume of 4 liters. The 2H engine provides just over 100 hp, and the 12H-T just over 130hp. The smaller 3B engine (3.4 liter 4 cylinder) was never used in the European 60-series, mainly in Canada and South-America.

The advantage of the turbo engine is that it accelerates much faster and has more towing capacity. Basically it's more agile. Disadvantage is that the turbo is a relatively vulnerable part of the engine. The propellor turns at top speed 30,000 rpm and needs oil to prevent friction at all times. A low level of engine oil can be fatal.

FJ60 has the 2F petrol engine. It also has 6 inline cylinders with 4.2 liters combined. This edition was mainly sold in the USA, and also in Australia and Switzerland. The advantages of this engine are the fact that it makes less sound, accelerates a bit faster, but uses more fuel than the diesel editions. The 3F engine was produced for the FJ62 and uses Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) instead of a carburator.

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In the beginning the 60-series were only delivered with a 4 speed gearbox. From 1982 onwards a 5 speed gearbox was optional, and from 1985 onwards a 5 speed was standard. This is for the Diesel editions (HJ). FJs were never delivered with 5 speeds, I believe.

But the 5th gear was added by Toyota, and not incorporated into the chamber of the original 4 gears.

Also, the controlling of the H4 (4WD) was changed in October 1985 from mechanically, by the small gear stick, to a button operated vacuum system. Low gear 4WD was still operated by the small gear stick on the transfer case.

The 60-series has also been delivered with an automatic gearbox (4 gears). Mainly on the FJ60 and 62s, but also on the HJ60 and 61s. The associated 2H engine had 10 hp more because of a larger fuel pump. The profit was taken by the automatic gearbox which consumes/needs more power.


Advantages and disadvantages

The advantage of a 4 speed gearbox is that it hardly breaks down. The disadvantage is that with higher speed of the car it makes more noise, because more rpm. Here lies the advantage of the 5 speed gearbox. But must be associated with the vulnerable 5th gear which has been stuck to the back of the 4 speed gearbox. The distribution of the gear oil for example can be problematic.

The automatic gearbox has the wellknown advantages of two hands on the steering wheel, and shifting gears at exact the right rotations per minute, but to me it seems more logic to control the shifting of gears in rough terrain by hand, so you can decide yourself when there is enough torque and enough rpm. Also, the automatic gearbox consumes more power, as said, and therefore more fuel.


Conclusions on engine and gearbox types

Summed up, and in our opion, the 5 speed and the automatic gearboxes are most suitable for the paved road when doing many kilometers. And the 4 speed gearbox and the turbo engine are most suited for towing heavy trailers and ploughing through rough terrain.



Then there is the difference in voltage with which Toyota has equiped the engines. In general there is the rule that diesel engines have been equiped with the 24 Volt system and petrol with the 12V. This has got to do with the fact that diesel engines need much more power to get them going, 12 Volts would not suffice. Unless you live in Australia where it is warm and the engine oil is more fluid all year round.

But there is also the theory that it has got to do with Toyota wanting the NATO to buy the Land Cruiser as the general used vehicle. NATO requires cars to have 24 Volts in order to be capable of sending radio signals over long distances. This would explain why in Australia there are also 12 Volt diesels, since it is no member of NATO.

When one wants to convert an FJ60 (i.e. petrol) to a diesel, one has to, consequently, take into account that the wire loom has to be changed from a 12 to a 24 Volts one. Apart from a different fuel hose system and some other adaptations.


5 to 9 seats

The 60 series of the Land Cruiser has editions for 5, 6, 8 or 9 persons. Namely, it has the (turbo) front seat for two, and the high roof edition which can seat 8 or 9, depending on whether it has the double passengers front seat or not. For this fore mentioned front seat the console in the middle has to be left out. Also, the double front seat does not comfortably sit two adults. And for the second row of back seats in the high rof edition one has to miss the better part of the trunk space.



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